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Clock Face Colliery baths, Lancashire by JH Bourne (1934)

The elegant pithead baths built for Britain’s miners in the 1930’s are among the country’s best examples of Modernist architecture; technologically advanced and progressive they once stood as proud symbols of miners’ welfare. Yet despite their socio-historic and architectural importance as a building type they have suffered a worse fate than most following the decline of the coal industry; many have been demolished while others continue to struggle to find a purpose in the communities they once served.

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Teversal Colliery baths

Traditional welfare provision for Britain’s army of miners (well over a million men at the beginning of the 20th century) was universally poor. Few miners were lucky enough to live close the colliery and many had to walk long distances before descending the mine, only to walk even further (in some cases several miles) underground to reach to the coal face before they could start their shift. On finishing a shift the exhausted miners faced the long walk home in all weathers, their sweat and mine-water soaked clothes sticking to their blackened bodies, bringing with them the threat of pneumonia and bronchitis. Baths were taken at home in a tin tub in front of the fire, or the yard in warmer weather, bringing the soot and dirt of the mine into the domestic environment. Miners’ wives were subjected to the back-breaking work of the constant battle against coal dust and cleaning of the heavy work clothes and boots.

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Kells Colliery Baths and Community Centre by JA Dempster (1940)

The establishment in 1926 of a special fund for pithead baths under the control of the Miners’ Welfare Committee (M.W.C.) was the culmination of decades of campaigning to improve facilities for miners. The committee derived its revenue from levies of halfpenny per ton of coal produced and one shilling in the pound on mining royalties, plus contributions taken from the miners’ own pay. Representatives of both coal-owners and mine workers sat on the main committee drawn from the 25 coal-mining area district committees.

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Betteshanger Colliery baths, Kent by Herbert Felton (1934)
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Big Pit baths, Wales (1939)

During the period 1921 to 1952 over 400 pithead baths were built under the direction of the M.W.C.’s regional architects departments. By the 1930’s a distinctive Modernist Functionalist house style had emerged which made much use of glass to bring light into the baths and distinct interior zoning (clean room, dirty room, cafeteria, community centre etc), each zone reflected in the bold massing of the baths’ exterior. Square towers were common and built to house the large HVAC equipment required to provide hot water for showers and blow a constant stream of hot air through the lockers to dry off the miners’ dirty clothes.

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Lynemouth Colliery baths, Northumberland by Frederick George Frizzel FRIBA (1938). Frizzel was chief architect to the Northumberland & Durham Miner’s Welfare, have previously served under JA Dempster. Grade II* listed. Photo by Shagmut.
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Excerpt from ‘Village and Town’ (Penguin publishing) showing an example of pithead bath design and demonstrating the forwarding thinking philosophy typical of the publishers at this time.
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Kiveton Park Colliery baths, Rotherham, South Yorkshire by William Albert Woodland (1938). Shown here under demolition in 2013. Note the miners’ lockers still visible.
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Cardowan Colliery baths, Scotland by John Austin Dempster FRIBA (1935). Dempster completed over 50 baths while chief architect of the North-Eastern and Scotland Division.
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Hamstead Colliery baths, West Midlands (1937)
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Manvers Colliery baths, South Yorkshire (photo 1940)

©2017 Modernist Tourists

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